(12) In certain NENA dialects the newest preterite from Classification II verbs features a good vocalism (m)CoCiC- otherwise (m)CuCiC- with no precursor in the earlier dialects. Noldeke (1868, 213) suggested that progressive setting is related to the latest Hebrew pual. Examples: Aradhin mbusille ‘he cooked’ (Krotkoff 1982, 136), Tkhuma mso:re:li ‘I began’, Jilu +poltele ‘he got they out’ (Fox 1992, 54). Forms with o or u are absent outside NENA as well as have in several of the NENA dialects: Hertevin, Sanandaj Religious, and you will Halabja: Halabja bqirraxun ‘you (pl.) asked’, Hertevin bqerre ‘he asked’ (Jastrow 1988, 206).
(13) The general establish are designated because of the a beneficial prefix throughout NENA except Hertevin along with Mandaic and in Turoyo. The brand new prefix requires certainly about three variations: (a) k- for the the verbs (cutting-edge so you’re able to c- into the Urmi, extended so you can ko- prior to consonants from inside the Turoyo, plus in Zakho to be g- ahead of a spoken phoneme); (b) k- however, just with the a small family of verbs (with some voicing intake and often other changes also); otherwise (c) i- with the every verbs.
Examples: (a) Zakho k-xaze ‘he sees’, g-emir ‘he says’ (Meehan and you may Alon 1979, 182), Urmi csader ‘he sends’ (Hetzron 1969, 115), Turoyo kohoze ‘he sees’, Tisqopa ksaqIl ‘he takes’ (Rubba, personal interaction); (b) Halabja k-ImrIx-wa ‘we manage say’, however, doqIx-wa-ce ‘we perform observe it’, Azerbaijan k-xil ‘he consumes, will eat’, but sate ‘he drinks, usually, could possibly get drink’ (Garbell 1965, 66, 67); (c) Aradhin we-zare:los angeles ‘he tills it’ (Krotkoff 1982, 70), Jilu i-napli baro ‘they pursue her’ (Fox 1992, 55).
The newest k- prefix appears to be a survival of prefix qa- of BT, as with brand new common qatane ‘he teaches’. age ‘stands’. In a few eastern dialects the fresh new shipping of k- has been restricted to a little category of verbs (Garbell 1965, 65). In others, it has gone away and you can become replaced by a different sort of prefix we-, and therefore probably got its start as the a reduced version of i[Theta] ‘there is’.
Examples: Halabja geznawa ta knista ‘I goes toward the synagogue’, Aradhin tla t-sapri ‘to wait’, Jilu zIlli l-yawa zuze tla weil kIcca ‘I decided to go to promote money to a good girl’, Tisqopa [Theta]e:li ta di-mbaslan ‘I (fem
(14) Brand new verb ‘give’ was yehav in BT, and you will yav in Syriac. This has been remade in most NENA languages from the incorporation of adopting the l- ‘to’. New essential, that was hav into the Syriac and you will BT, are hal (Noldeke 1868, 256) throughout NENA where I have recommendations, yet not from inside the Turoyo or Mandaic.
(15) In every NENA, brand new just one crucial regarding qyama ‘get up’ has shed their latest m: Aradhin qu (Krotkoff 1982, 145), Sanandaj Religious qu (Panoussi, 110). This new plural, although not, retains the meters.
(16) Throughout NENA, brand new crucial out-of (i)zala ‘go’ try irregular: Aradhin quand (Krotkoff 1982, 147), Sanandaj Christian state (Panoussi 119), Jilu se, Jewish Azerbaijani au moment ou (Garbell 1965, 285).
(17) Around the NENA, several different terms can be used since feet to possess reflexive pronouns including ‘myself’. He is: ruh- within the Hertevin and also in Turoyo, nos- on about three easternmost Jewish languages, and you will gyan- regarding the leftover languages: Hertevin ruhan ‘ourselves’ (Jastrow 1988, 197), Zakho qtala gyane ‘beating himself’ (Meehan and Alon 1982, 181), Halabja nosan ‘ourselves’.
This qa- is actually by itself good contraction away from qa?
(18) Another preposition meaning ‘to’ otherwise ‘for’ which will take the design ta, tla, otherwise tla was common, even when not universal, in NENA, not found in Mandaic or Turoyo. ) concerned cook’ (Rubba, personal telecommunications), Zakho cuxa la psIxle darga facts ‘no one to opened the entranceway to him’ (Meehan and you may Alon 1979, 182).