Bee Species Diversity
Out-of 2009 so you’re able to 2018, 192 bee kinds (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Anthophila) were stuck in the Calanques National Park thru each other net and you may dish pitfall collections. They belonged in order to half dozen group and you will 38 genera. Megachilidae is actually by far the most types-steeped family relations, with Apidae and Halictidae, which have 53, forty-two, and you can 43 types, correspondingly. Andrena Fabricius, 1775 was new wealthiest genus, that have 33 varieties, whereas eight genera was in fact portrayed because of the one types (Stelis Panzer, 1806; Protosmia Ducke, 1900; Pseudoanthidium Friese, 1898; Coelioxys Latreille, 1809; Chelostoma Latreille, 1809; Anthidiellum Cockerell, 1904; Amegilla Friese, 1897; Panurgus Panzer, 1806; Supp Table 1 [on the web just] ). Utilizing the jackknife 1 and you can dos indexes, the total bee variety fullness try estimated becoming between ± 9.89 and you may ± . The fresh observed fullness for this reason illustrated 71.3 in order to 79.6% of your projected bee richness ( Dining table 2). The new Chao1 approach projected the noticed richness becoming 76.8% of prospective restriction richness ( Table dos). By far the most numerous varieties are Apis mellifera L. (276 individuals), followed by Rhodanthidium septemdentatum (Latreille, 1809), Rh. sticticum (Fabricius, 1787) (174 and you will 168 individuals, respectively), and Lasioglossum transitorium (Shenck, 1868) (113 some one). Eventually, 50 types (26%) was indeed represented because of the just one private (singletons).
Ecological Qualities from Bees
Regarding your ecological qualities off nesting tastes, i known 59 single bee variety nesting a lot more than floor, ninety-five single bee types nesting below ground and you will 23 cleptoparasitic types, comparable to 30.7, 47.9, and you can a dozen.0% of the total bee kinds richness, correspondingly. We detected five societal types (bumble bees and you will honey bees-2.1%). Ultimately, new nesting preferences from 14 varieties remain unfamiliar (seven.3%- Supp Desk step 1 [on the web merely] ). Concerning your flowery diet from bee kinds, i unearthed that 105 varieties (54.7%) foraged with the numerous bush variety (we.elizabeth., generalist kinds, polylectic) and you may 51 types (26.5%) foraged on one plant nearest and dearest otherwise one/pair bush variety (i.e., professional variety, oligolectic). Towards the left thirty-six bee variety (18.8%), brand new flowery diet was not identified (elizabeth.grams., to possess cleptoparasitic types). However, extremely generalist varieties exhibited an inclination for example or a few bush parents ( Supp Desk step one [online merely] ). Into forty-two singletons, fourteen bee species (28%) was in fact experts, and you may nine bee varieties (18%) have been cleptoparasitic ( Supp Dining table step one [online simply] ).
An IUCN standing was available for 178 varieties (excluding the variety complexes and you may unfamiliar types). Those types of, 47 varieties was indeed classified once the study lacking (DD-twenty six.4%), 124 varieties was indeed least concerned (LC-69.6%), half dozen varieties was indeed near threatened (NT-3.4%; Andrena ovatula (Kirby, 1802), Colletes albomaculatus (Lucas, 1849), Dasypoda argentata Panzer, 1809, Halictus quadricinctus (Fabricius, 1776), Lasioglossum prasinum (Smith, 1848), and you may L. pygmaeum (Schenck, 1853)), and one types was considered threatened (EN-0.6%; L. soror (Saunders, 1901)- Supp Table step 1 [online only] ). Around three oligolectic variety was in fact one of the 7 threatened bee varieties. An excellent. ovatula and you can C. albomaculatus is gurus into the Fabaceae, D. argentata are http://www.datingranking.net/japan-cupid-review a specialist for the Caprifoliaceae.
Regarding 2009 in order to 2018, 38 species of hover flies (Diptera: Syrphidae) was basically stuck inside the Calanques Federal Playground. It belonged so you’re able to 24 genera ( Supp Dining table 2 [on the web simply] ). Probably the most numerous genera were Paragus Latreille, 1804 (33 someone), Meliscaeva Frey, 1946 (fourteen people), and you can Sphaerophoria Lepeletier de Saint-Fargeau Audinet-Serville from inside the Latreille, 1828 (13 someone), while 20 kinds (53%) had been depicted by the one private ( Supp Dining table dos [on the internet simply] ). The latest bee flies (Diptera: Bombyliidae) had been represented from the 20 varieties, along with five singletons (25%) ( Supp Table step three [on the web just] ). The fresh new estimate off total kinds fullness off hover flies and you may bee flies are ranging from 83 and you can 97 variety making use of the jackknife step one and you may dos spiders, respectively. Therefore, the newest noticed richness represented 59.8–69.9% of one’s projected hover travel and you will bee fly fullness ( Dining table 2).